Von Schirach had been appointed head of the Hitler Youth in 1933 and had featured prominently in the Nazi hierarchy and in the Nuremberg rallies. When he left Germany to fight in the Battle of France, he lost his Reichsjugendführer position to Artur Axmann but returned home to be appointed Nazi chief in Vienna.
After the war, during his trial at Nuremberg, he condemned Hitler and the Nazi regime. (As did Albert Speer.) Even so, he served over twenty years in prison for his role in sending Viennese Jews to the extermination camps in the east.